Liberal Controversies to look up and refute:
The doctrinal and christological controversies of the early church, especially involving Popes Liberius (352-66), Vigi’iius (540-55), Honorius (625-38) and Alexander III (1154-81).
– The rise of the Crusades to recapture the Holy Land by the use of violence, especially under Urban II (1088-99).
– The banning of Jews from holding public office by Innocent III (1198-1210).
– The justification of torture to acquire confessions of heretics by Innocent IV (1245-54).
– The assertion that civil power is subordinate to ecclesiastical authority by Boniface VIII (1294-1303).
– The justification of slavery over a long period, specifically by Nicholas V (1447-55).
– The long condemnation of usury by popes such as Pius V (1566-72) and Sixtus V (1585-90).
– The condemnation of those who received smallpox vaccinations by Leo XII (1823-29).
– The condemnation of freedom of conscience by Gregory XVI (1831-46) and
Pius IX (1846-78).
– The condemnation of the movement for christian unity by Pius XI (1922-39).
– The various rulings of the Pontifical Biblical Commission invested with papal authority by Leo XIII (1878-1903), Pius X (1903-14) and Benedict XV (1914-22).